Linguistics of ASL: "Sign Language Structure and Usage"
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Linguistics of American Sign Language: An Introduction, 5th Ed.,  by Clayton Valli, Ceil Lucas, Kristin J. Mulrooney, and Miako Villanueva


Study Guide (using the 5th Edition text)

001. What is linguistics? [Page 001, Fifth Edition]
002. Language is: [Page 001, Fifth Edition]
003. Morse code, semaphore, traffic signals, public symbols; and the information exchange processes used by bees, birds, dolphins, and apes are examples of: [Page 001, Fifth Edition]
004. Languages and communication systems are composed of: [Page 001, Fifth Edition]
005. What do you call an English word that has been selected to correspond to an ASL sign in order to represent that sign in written form? [Page 002, Fifth Edition]
006. The tendency for both hands to have the same handshape (if both hands move during a sign) is known as what condition? [Page 002, Fifth Edition]
007. What do you call the principle that states that in a two-handed sign, if each hand has a different handshape then only the active hand moves? [Page 002, Fifth Edition]
008. The signs "word" and "money" illustrate what? [Page 002, Fifth Edition]
009. What are the seven basic handshapes used by the passive hand in a two-handed sign? [Page 002, Fifth Edition]
010. What linguistic term means that the actual form of a symbol doesn’t reflect the form of the thing or activity it symbolizes? [Page 004, Fifth Edition]
011. What term means that the form of a symbol is an icon or picture of some aspect of the thing or activity being symbolized? [Page 004, Fifth Edition]
012. What do you call it when the sound of a word symbolizes the sound of the object or activity to which the word refers? [Page 004, Fifth Edition]
013. What do you call groups of words that resemble each other and whose form seems to reflect their meaning? [Page 005, Fifth Edition]
014. This topic is not a question of a sign being "right" or "wrong." [Page 006, Fifth Edition]
015. Because the number of sentences that can be made is infinite and new messages on any topic can be produced at any time, we consider language to be: [Page 007, Fifth Edition]
016. Prepositions, adverbs, depiction, and non-manual signals such as "mm" or "th" distinguish language from communication systems by providing: [Page 007, Fifth Edition]
017. What nonmanual signal uses pouted lips with the tongue visibly positioned between the teeth and can be translated as meaning “carelessly?” [Page 008, Fifth Edition]
018. In English you would use a preposition such as “on” to indicate a book is on a table. What would you use in ASL? [Page 008, Fifth Edition]
019. The sign "CLUB" was introduced into ASL at the 1989 Deaf Way conference. This is an example of what avenue or process of introducing new symbols into ASL? [Page 008, Fifth Edition]
020. What are the three main communication domains of animals? [Page 008, Fifth Edition]
021. Duality of patterning refers to: [Page 010, Fifth Edition]
022. The meaning of a word or sentence depends on aspects of the context in which it is used such as time, place, relationship to the other person, and so forth. This is known as: [Page 011, Fifth Edition]
023. Raising of the eyebrows, and thrusting the head slightly forward while signing a sentence would tend to indicate: [Page 011, Fifth Edition]
024. The feature of language that allows users to refer to different time periods (other than present and immediate situations) is known as: [Page 011, Fifth Edition]
025. Birdsong is done: [Page 012, Fifth Edition]
026. Who established the Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons (which was later changed to the American School for the Deaf)? [Page 013, Fifth Edition]
027. Some of the Deaf students who came to Hartford brought their own sign language with them, including those from: [Page 014, Fifth Edition]
028. What term refers to the various sign systems such as SEE-1, SEE-2, and LOVE, that were developed to represent English on the hands? [Page 014, Fifth Edition]
029. People who study language are called: [Page 015, Fifth Edition]
030. Gathering observable, empirical, and measureable evidence to prove or disprove hypotheses: [Page 015, Fifth Edition]
031. The study of how the meaning conveyed by a word or sentence depends on aspects of the context in which it is used (such as time, place, social relationship between speaker and hearer, and speaker’s assumptions about the hearer’s beliefs). [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
032. The application of the methods and results of linguistics to such areas as language teaching; national language policies; lexicography; translation; and language in politics, advertising, classrooms, courts, and the like. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
033. The study of the way in which words are constructed out of smaller meaningful units. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
034. The study of meaning; how words and sentences are related to the objects they refer to and the situations they describe. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
035. The study of the brain and how it functions in the production, perception and acquisition of language. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
036. The study of the inter-relationship between language and culture. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
037. The study of the interrelationship of language and social structure; linguistic variation; attitudes toward language. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
038. The study of the interrelationship of language and the cognitive structures; the acquisition of language. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
039. The study of the sound system (or smallest contrastive units) of language; how the particular sounds (or smallest contrastive units) used in each language form an integrated system for encoding information and how such systems differ from one language to another. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
040. The study of the way in which sentences are constructed; how sentences are related to each other. [Page 016, Fifth Edition]
041. Rules that show us how a linguistic system works: [Page 017, Fifth Edition]
042. Involves studying the smallest contrastive units of language? [Page 021, Fifth Edition]
043. What term do sign language linguists use to refer to the study of how signs are structured and organized? [Page 021, Fifth Edition]
044. What are the five basic parts of signs? [Page 021, Fifth Edition]
045. Linguists use notation methods to write down (or type) signs and non-manual signals. One such method is transcription. What is the other common notation method? [Page 023, Fifth Edition]
046. What kind of features are indicated on a line above sign glosses? [Page 023, Fifth Edition]
047. When glossing, what do we use “small capital letters in English” to represent? [Page 023, Fifth Edition]
048. When glossing, what do we represent with small capital letters preceded by the # symbol? [Page 024, Fifth Edition]
049. When glossing, what is represented by dashes between small capital letters? [Page 024, Fifth Edition]
050. What notation method do linguists use when they need to describe the structure of signs? [Page 024, Fifth Edition]
051. Name two systems that have been developed for describing the structure of signs. [Page 024, Fifth Edition]
052. What do we call the agreed-upon symbols that linguists use to describe the structure of signs in a consistent and predictable manner? [Page 024, Fifth Edition]
053. What do we call the representation of one language in another language? [Page 024, Fifth Edition]
054. Stokoe proposed that signs have three parts (parameters) that combine: [Page 028, Fifth Edition]
055. William C. Stokoe designed the first system for describing ASL. He proposed that signs have what three parts? [Page 028, Fifth Edition]
056. The Stokoe system of describing ASL is limited in its usefulness as a description system because it does not provide a sufficient: [Page 034, Fifth Edition]
057. What do we call words or signs that are identical in all segments (parts that occur in sequence) except one? [Page 037, Fifth Edition]
058. What model for describing the structure of signs did Scott K. Liddell and Robert E. Johnson develop? [Page 041, Fifth Edition]
059. According to the Movement-Hold Model, signs consist of hold segments and movement segments that are produced: [Page 041, Fifth Edition]
060. In the Scott K. Liddell and Robert E. Johnson transcription system, what does the letter "X" represent as a timing unit? [Page 042, Fifth Edition]
061. What is the segmental structure of GOOD? [Page 044, Fifth Edition]
062. Linguists’ have come up with varying numbers of “primes” for sign parameters (handshapes, locations, orientations, movements, holds, and nonmanual signals). How many primes did Stokoe count? [Page 045, Fifth Edition]
063. Linguists’ have come up with varying numbers of “primes” for sign parameters (handshapes, locations, orientations, movements, holds, and nonmanual signals). How many did Liddle and Johnson count? [Page 045, Fifth Edition]
064. Sometimes a movement segment is added between the last segment of one sign and the first segment of the next sign. The process of adding a movement segment between two signs is called: [Page 047, Fifth Edition]
065. The reduction of holds between movements of signs that occur in sequence is called: [Page 048, Fifth Edition]
066. Sometimes parts of the segments of a sign can change places. This is called: [Page 048, Fifth Edition]
067. The signs DEAF, CONGRESS, FLOWER, RESTAURANT, HONEYMOON, NAVY, TWINS, BACHELOR, PARENTS, and HEAD can all be good examples of what phonological process? [Page 049, Fifth Edition]
068. This phonological process occurs when a segment takes on the characteristics of another segment near it: [Page 050, Fifth Edition]
069. What historical change has occurred in these signs: HORSE, COW, CAT, and DEER? [Page 050, Fifth Edition]
070. Before Stokoe, signs were thought of as: [Page 053, Fifth Edition]
071. Consonants and vowels in spoken languages are parallel to what in sign languages? [Page 054, Fifth Edition]
072. What is the study of the smallest contrastive parts of language that do not have independent meaning? [Page 057, Fifth Edition]
073. In considering phonology and morphology in regard to the signs LOUSY, AWKWARD, THREE-DOLLARS, and PREACH -- which sign doesn’t fit with the other on the list? [Page 057, Fifth Edition]
074. The smallest meaningful unit in a language is a: [Page 058, Fifth Edition]
075. Meaningful units of language that cannot occur by themselves are called: [Page 058, Fifth Edition]
076. The process of making new units for a language is: [Page 058, Fifth Edition]
077. In English, adding “er” to the verb “write” to create the noun “writer” is an example of: [Page 058, Fifth Edition]
078. Bound morphemes that are added to free morpheme roots or stems to form more complex multimorphemic words are called what? [Page 058, Fifth Edition]
079. The sign GIRL and (a version of) the sign SAME can be combined to mean SISTER. What type of sign is SISTER? [Page 059, Fifth Edition]
080. The process of adding grammatical information to units that already exist is called: [Page 059, Fifth Edition]
081. In English, emphasizing or “stressing” the first syllable of the word subject instead of the second syllable, is an example of: [Page 063, Fifth Edition]
082. The use of affixation in ASL, such as adding "-er" to create "walker" result in what kind of morpheme? [Page 063, Fifth Edition]
083. What types of signs differ in their movement but share the same handshape, location, and orientation? [Page 064, Fifth Edition]
084. Another word for the process of repetition that takes place in noun-verb pairs is: [Page 065, Fifth Edition]
085. In Noun-verb pairs the distinguishing morpheme is: [Page 065, Fifth Edition]
086. When individual signs (free morphemes) are combined to create a new sign with a new meaning this is called what? [Page 067, Fifth Edition]
087. The first contact rule, the single sequence rule, and the weak hand anticipation rule are what kind of rules [Page 068, Fifth Edition]
088. According to the "first contact hold morphological rule," if two signs come together to form a compound and the first sign has a contact hold in it, that hold will be: [Page 068, Fifth Edition]
089. According to the single sequence morphological rule, when compounds are made in ASL, internal movement or the repetition of movement will be: [Page 069, Fifth Edition]
090. When a right handed signer signs the concept “BELIEVE,” (which is made up from the signs “THINK” and “MARRY”) his/her weak hand is formed into a “C” handshape while the strong hand is signing “THINK.” This is an example of what morphological rule?: [Page 069, Fifth Edition]
091. Movement epenthesis, hold deletion, and assimilation are what kind of rules? [Page 070, Fifth Edition]
092. In the compound sign THINK-SAME, a movement segment is added between the final hold of THINK and the first movement of SAME. This is an example of: [Page 070, Fifth Edition]
093. When two signs are compounded, the noncontact holds between movements are eliminated. What phonological rule is this? [Page 070, Fifth Edition]
094. If I sign BELIEVE, and my strong hand starts looking more like a “C” handshape than a “1” handshape, or if I sign RESEMBLE (which is a combination of LOOK+STRONG) and I do the sign for STRONG up near my face—what is taking place? [Page 071, Fifth Edition]
095. These signs are the direct result of language contact with English and may resemble the written symbol.: [Page 074, Fifth Edition]
096. The fingerspelled letter “C” [Page 074, Fifth Edition]
097. In fingerspelling, a number of separate morphemes may blend together as if they were one "sign." This is called: [Page 074, Fifth Edition]
098. Lexicalized means: [Page 074, Fifth Edition]
099. When glossing we use the symbol # to indicate: [Page 075, Fifth Edition]
100. When fingerspelling, the location, handshapes, and orientation may change. Letters may be deleted. Movement may be added. What is this called? [Page 075, Fifth Edition]
101. What are bound morphemes? [Page 082, Fifth Edition]
102. Movements, holds, handshape, location, orientation, and nonmanual markers: [Page 082, Fifth Edition]
103. The handshape of the sign WEEK can be modified by using a number such as a two or a three to indicate a specific number of weeks. This process is known as: [Page 082, Fifth Edition]
104. The sign “TWO-WEEKS” can be thought of as having two meaningful parts. The first part would be the bundle of information consisting of the holds, movement, location, orientation, and nonmanual signal. What is the other meaningful part? [Page 082, Fifth Edition]
105. In the sign “TWO-WEEKS” the “2 handshape”: [Page 083, Fifth Edition]
106. In the sign LOUSY, its individual parts: [Page 083, Fifth Edition]
107. The handshape for WEEK can be changed from 1 through what? [Page 083, Fifth Edition]
108. The handshape change that we see in “ages 1 to 9” is the result of: [Page 084, Fifth Edition]
109. Linguistic rules are: [Page 089, Fifth Edition]
110. The grammar rules used for making new sentences: [Page 089, Fifth Edition]
111. After we have introduced a noun or a noun phrase, what do we use to say something about that noun or noun phrase? [Page 091, Fifth Edition]
112. Three types of common (non-classifier) ASL predicates are: [Page 091, Fifth Edition]
113. What do you use to indicate when an action or event took place (for example: YESTERDAY or STILL)? [Page 101, Fifth Edition]
114. What is the articulation of a sign? [Page 101, Fifth Edition]
115. Six basic sentence types in which nonmanual signals play a role in ASL syntax are: [Page 091, Fifth Edition]
116. The eyebrows are raised, the eyes are widened, the head or body may tilt forward, sometimes the shoulders are raised, and sometimes the last sign is held: [Page 092, Fifth Edition]
117. The signer is surprised by the information he is being given and or wants to check what the other person is saying: [Page 093, Fifth Edition]
118. WHERE, WHO, WHEN, WHAT and WHY done with the eyebrows squinted (furrowed) and the head tiled: [Page 093, Fifth Edition]
119. Signs like REASON, WHEN, WHO, WHAT, WHERE, and FOR-FOR done with raised eyebrows and a slight shake or tilt of the head. [Page 094, Fifth Edition]
120. The process of changing an affirmative sentence to a negative is called: [Page 094, Fifth Edition]
121. Another name for a "command" statement: [Page 095, Fifth Edition]
122. When the object of a sentence is moved to the front of the sentence: [Page 095, Fifth Edition]
123. Raised eyebrows, head tilt, a short pause, and an situation involving the concept of "if" or "suppose": [Page 096, Fifth Edition]
124. What type of ASL sentence doesn't seem to be marked by a nonmanual signal and is glossed without a line over the signs? [Page 097, Fifth Edition]
125. In ASL the sentence type is determined by: [Page 097, Fifth Edition]
126. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are: [Page 100, Fifth Edition]
127. Signs that contribute to the substantive meaning of sentences are called: [Page 100, Fifth Edition]
128. Signs that contribute to the substantive meaning of sentences are called: [Page 100, Fifth Edition]
129. The position of a sign with respect to the bound morphemes that can be attached to it with a sign: [Page 100, Fifth Edition]
130. The position in which a sign occurs relative to the other classes of signs in the same phrase: [Page 100, Fifth Edition]
131. Identify entities such as individuals, places, concrete things, and abstract things: [Page 101, Fifth Edition]
132. Actions, processes, and states of being: [Page 101, Fifth Edition]
133. Signs that describe nouns: [Page 101, Fifth Edition]
134. Signs that are used to express manner, indicate temporal frequency, modify adjectives, or adverbs: [Page 101, Fifth Edition]
135. What do you use to indicate when an action or event took place (for example: YESTERDAY or STILL)? [Page 101, Fifth Edition]
136. You can use particular movements and nonmanual signals (NMS) to modify ASL adjectives and predicates. You can also modify ASL adjectives and predicates by changing the structure of the sign itself, for example: VERY-TALL. This is an example of what in ASL? [Page 103, Fifth Edition]
137. Signs that represent a person, place, or thing that has already been identified in a sentence: [Page 103, Fifth Edition]
138. The sign for "the three of us" is an example of: [Page 105, Fifth Edition]
139. WILL, CAN, MUST, and SHOULD are: [Page 107, Fifth Edition]
140. In ASL preposition concepts such as: "under, on, in, above, with, and to" are commonly expressed through: [Page 107, Fifth Edition]
141. The signs IN, UNDER, and BEHIND: [Page 107, Fifth Edition]
142. What do we use to join words or phrases of the same category? [Page 109, Fifth Edition]
143. In ASL, the signs UNDERSTAND, OR, and PLUS are examples of what closed lexical category? [Page 109, Fifth Edition]
144. The basic or most neutral word order in ASL: [Page 112, Fifth Edition]
145. The term for verbs that allow objects is: [Page 116, Fifth Edition]
146. What do we call it when a signer uses a pronoun after the main clause to refer back to the subject: [Page 112, Fifth Edition]
147. The placement of the information at the beginning of a sentence accompanied by raised eyebrows and a slight forward head tilt: [Page 113, Fifth Edition]
148. Signers may choose not to express the subject or object in a clause when people understand it from earlier statements. This is called what? [Page 113, Fifth Edition]
149. The linguistic term for verbs or predicates that do not allow objects is: [Page 116, Fifth Edition]
150. The basic word order in ASL sentences with intransitive verbs is: [Page 116, Fifth Edition]
151. The sentence "BOY SILLY," is an example of what? [Page 116, Fifth Edition]
152. In ASL, the sentence "SILLY BOY," is: [Page 116, Fifth Edition]
153. Language users are not limited to talking about events in the here and now. This is called: [Page 120, Fifth Edition]
154. Suffixes (bound morphemes) in English like “-ed” and the third person present “-s” that help establish when an event happened are called: [Page 120, Fifth Edition]
155. Traditionally, time in ASL is expressed through what? [Page 121, Fifth Edition]
156. Inflecting the a sign for a day of the week by using a hold-movement-hold segmental structure that starts from the height of a signer’s dominant shoulder to the mid-torso, with the palm orientation toward the signer is an example of what? [Page 121, Fifth Edition]
157. The signs ALL-DAY-LONG and ALL-NIGHT-LONG are good examples of [Page 121, Fifth Edition]
158. How would a sentence that simply makes reference to the past such as “He went for a walk yesterday," -- typically be signed? [Page 124, Fifth Edition]
159. Information contained in a predicate that tells us how the action of the predicate is done: [Page 125, Fifth Edition]
160. What ASL grammar principle has to do with how the action of a verb is performed with reference to time: [Page 125, Fifth Edition]
161. The linguistic term for adding grammatical information to a word or sign: [Page 126, Fifth Edition]
162. When the signing space for a sign is reduced and the movement is done quickly it inflects the meaning of a verb to mean: [Page 129, Fifth Edition]
163. For a sign like “ANALYZE,” the meaning of “IN-A-HURRY” can be indicated with: [Page 129, Fifth Edition]
164. Another temporal aspect marker is “activity performed under pressure and then concluded.” This can be shown by: [Page 129, Fifth Edition]
165. The function of items in this lexical category is to encode meaning related to action and states: [Page 133, Fifth Edition]
166. A type of verb that is produced in a static location that cannot be altered without changing the meaning of the sign: [Page 133, Fifth Edition]
167. Verbs that incorporate additional information about the subject and object of the sentence by moving toward specific people, objects or spatial locations. [Page 133, Fifth Edition]
168. The signs GIVE, INFORM, TELL, PICK-ON, SEND, and PAY are what kind of verbs? [Page 133, Fifth Edition]
169. What is unusual about the sign HIRE / INVITE? [Page 136, Fifth Edition]
170. Verbs that include information about two subjects and two objects simultaneously (such as: LOOK-AT-EACH-OTHER are called: [Page 136, Fifth Edition]
171. What type of indicating verb uses the direction or location of the sign to express specific meaning (such as the sign THROW). [Page 137, Fifth Edition]
172. Plain verbs: [Page 137, Fifth Edition]
173. One difference between locative verbs and classifier predicates is that: [Page 137, Fifth Edition]
174. USE-SCALPEL is what kind of verb? [Page 137, Fifth Edition]
175. The form (handshape) of these verbs represents aspects of their meaning in addition to conveying information related to action or state of being: [Page 138, Fifth Edition]
176. Depicting verbs used to be known as or have been referred to as what? [Page 139, Fifth Edition]
177. This type of verb can be divided into showing where something is in space, describing how it looks (or is arranged), or showing movement / action. [Page 139, Fifth Edition]
178. The sign for FUNERAL is an example of what kind of depicting verb? [Page 143, Fifth Edition]
179. The sign FALL-IN-LOVE is an example of what kind of verb? [Page 143, Fifth Edition]
180. In the signs SUMMER, UGLY, and DRY, space is used to indicate what? [Page 146, Fifth Edition]
181. The sentences “I GIVE YOU” and “YOU GIVE ME” makes what kind of use of space? [Page 146, Fifth Edition]
182. When a location in space is associated with a person or a thing and that person or thing is indexed (pointed to) we can say that space is performing what kind of function? [Page 147, Fifth Edition]
183. When you use space to provide information about the location of a person or object in a three-dimensional network, what sort of function are you using? [Page 147, Fifth Edition]
184. A good example of a signer is describing something using a “relative frame of reference” would be: [Page 147, Fifth Edition]
185. A good example of a signer is describing something using an “absolute frame of reference” would be: [Page 147, Fifth Edition]
186. The study of the meaning of words and sentences: [Page 151, Fifth Edition]
187. Meaning that has to do with an idea, thing, or state of affairs described by a sign or sentence: [Page 152, Fifth Edition]
188. Information about the social identity of the language user [Page 152, Fifth Edition]
189. Feelings, attitudes or opinions about a piece of information [Page 153, Fifth Edition]
190. The referential meaning of a sign is called its what? [Page 153, Fifth Edition]
191. The social and affective meaning of a sign is often called its what? [Page 153, Fifth Edition]
192. The collection of words or signs belonging to a language is its [Page 154, Fifth Edition]
193. The fact that BLUE, RED, YELLOW, GREEN and so forth can be listed below the general concept of COLOR is an example of what kind of relationship? [Page 154, Fifth Edition]
194. The relationship shared between the signs HAND and ARM is [Page 155, Fifth Edition]
195. When two signs mean the same thing, the relationship they have is [Page 155, Fifth Edition]
196. The relationship between two signs that are opposite in meaning: [Page 155, Fifth Edition]
197. What kind of antonyms can show degrees of the concept to which they refer? (Like “large and small.”) [Page 156, Fifth Edition]
198. What kind of antonyms generally are not used to show degrees of the concept to which they refer? [Page 156, Fifth Edition]
199. “Wife and husband,” “teacher and student,” “aunt and niece” all show what semantic relationship? [Page 157, Fifth Edition]
200. An extension of the use of a word or sign beyond its primary meaning to describe referents that are similar to the words or sign’s primary referent: [Page 159, Fifth Edition]
201. “DEPRESSED and TIRED” are what kind of Metaphor? [Page 159, Fifth Edition]
202. Treating abstract entities, states, and events as though they were objects is an example of what kind of metaphor? (Treading water, climbing out of depression.) [Page 159, Fifth Edition]
203. Treating one concept in terms of another more tangible concept is an example of what kind of metaphor? (time is money) [Page 160, Fifth Edition]
204. How sentences show who did what to whom, with whom, or for whom is a function of: [Page 163, Fifth Edition]
205. Agent, patient, experiencer, instrument, and cause are all examples of: [Page 163, Fifth Edition]
206. Tense, aspect, reference, and deixis are indicated by: [Page 165, Fifth Edition]
207. Often indicated by separate signs in a sentence and possibly also by the position of the body and the location of the hands in the signing space: [Page 165, Fifth Edition]
208. Has to do with the manner in which the action of a verb is performed. Often shown by altering the basic structure of the sign. [Page 165, Fifth Edition]
209. Provides information about the relationship between noun phrases and their referents: [Page 165, Fifth Edition]
210. Marks the orientation or position of objects and events with respect to certain points of reference (pronouns and pointing). [Page 166, Fifth Edition]
211. Meaning which comes from the situation in which the sentence is produced: [Page 166, Fifth Edition]
212. The area of linguistics that investigates the role of context in understanding meaning is called: [Page 167, Fifth Edition]
213. People in one geographic area may use a language differently from people in another geographic area: [Page 171, Fifth Edition]
214. “Regional, social, ethnic, gender, and age” are all categories of: [Page 172, Fifth Edition]
215. Regional differences can be found in the phonological system of a language. Those differences may be referred to as: [Page 172, Fifth Edition]
216. The fact that there are many different signs for PICNIC, BIRTHDAY, and SOON is considered to be an example of: [Page 172, Fifth Edition]
217. What is the likely reason that ASL seems somewhat more standardized than other sign languages such as Italian Sign Language?: [Page 172, Fifth Edition]
218. What reason is given as likely for why Black and White signers have been observed signing certain words differently? [Page 173, Fifth Edition]
219. Changes in an existing form of a sign may be introduced. The two forms may coexist for a while. Then the older form may disappear. [Page 174, Fifth Edition]
220. The sign DIE: [Page 175, Fifth Edition]
221. The sign for "change channels on a television": [Page 175, Fifth Edition]
222. The sign for "DEAF": [Page 176, Fifth Edition]
223. The older form of the sign HOME: [Page 175, Fifth Edition]
224. The sign DEAF: [Page 175, Fifth Edition]
225. The dropping of a subject pronoun with verbs that usually require s subject (such as FEEL, KNOW, or LIKE) is an example of: [Page 176, Fifth Edition]
226. Use of language that goes beyond the sentence. How language is organized in conversations or in written texts. [Page 179, Fifth Edition]
227. How many people can sign at once, how much one person should sign, what can be signed about, and so forth: [Page 180, Fifth Edition]
228. Conversations that tell someone about a conversation that has already taken place: [Page 182, Fifth Edition]
229. Language appropriate for a certain occasion: [Page 182, Fifth Edition]
230. Two languages used in the same location and both stay: [Page 188, Fifth Edition]
231. The situation in the American Deaf Community, (where most deaf people know some form of English and ASL) is one of: [Page 189, Fifth Edition]
232. When one language borrows a word or a sign from another language and incorporates it into its system this is called: [Page 189, Fifth Edition]
233. When a bilingual person is using one language and then intentionally changes to another language: [Page 189, Fifth Edition]
234. Simplification of a language to communicate with someone who doesn't know the language well: [Page 190, Fifth Edition]
235. When a bilingual person unconsciously uses parts of one language in another language: [Page 191, Fifth Edition]
236. Language contact between adult users of mutually unintelligible languages who are communicating for specific purposes and are not trying to learn each other's language often results in: [Page 191, Fifth Edition]
237. When children learn pidgin as their native language and change it and make it more complex: [Page 191, Fifth Edition]
238. When a deaf person signs ASL with a bilingual hearing person and then puts down her hand and says an English word (maybe for emphasis) this is called: [Page 191, Fifth Edition]
239. A representation (using ASL forms) of the orthographic system of English: [Page 192, Fifth Edition]
240. English word order, the use of prepositions, constructions with that, English expressions, mouthing of English words as well as ASL nonmanual signals, body and eye gaze shifting, and ASL use of space are all part this unique phenomenon: [Page 193, Fifth Edition]
241. Which of the following is a fundamental part of Deaf Culture? [Page 195, Fifth Edition]
242. Stories that incorporate the 26 letters of the fingerspelled alphabet are called: [Page 195, Fifth Edition]
243. Stories in which each sign includes a handshape for a number from 1 to 15 or higher are called: [Page 196, Fifth Edition]
244. A story told using one's head to represent a golf ball would be utilizing what kind of verb? [Page 196, Fifth Edition]
245. What type of signing started in the 1940's at Gallaudet University football games when it was performed for the song of the Gallaudet mascot? [Page 196, Fifth Edition]
246. Signing done to a beat is called what? [Page 196, Fifth Edition]
247. The Onyx and DeafWest are examples of what? [Page 197, Fifth Edition]
248. In the story of the Deaf giant, the woman is smashed when the giant signs what? [Page 197, Fifth Edition]
249. Why is Charles McKinney and Al Barwiolek's skit about "two people saying goodbye" such a big hit with Deaf audiences? [Page 198, Fifth Edition]
250. Clayton Valli's "Dandelion" poem's repeated circular movement of the flowers shows what kind of rhyme? [Page 198, Fifth Edition]
 


Test Bank from previous editions:

[001] Morse code, semaphore, traffic signals, public symbols; and the information exchange processes used by bees, birds, dolphins, and apes are examples of: * Rule governed communication systems
[001] What is language? * A rule-governed communication system.
[001] What is linguistics? * The scientific study of language
[002] The application of the methods and results of linguistics to such areas as language teaching; national language policies; lexicography; translation; and language in politics, advertising, classrooms, courts, and the like. * Applied Linguistics
[002] What do you call an English word that has been selected to correspond to an ASL sign in order to represent that sign in written form? * A gloss
[002] What is the study of how the meaning conveyed by a word or sentence depends on aspects of the context in which it is used (such as time, place, social relationship between speaker and hearer, and speaker’s assumptions about the hearer’s beliefs): * Pragmatics
[002] What is the study of meaning; how words and sentences are related to the objects they refer to and the situations they describe? * Semantics
[002] What is the study of the brain and how it functions in the production, perception and acquisition of language? * Neurolinguistics
[002] What is the study of the way in which words are constructed out of smaller meaningful units? * Morphology
[003] What are the seven basic handshapes used by the passive hand in a two-handed sign? * B, A, S, O, C, 1, 5
[003] What do you call the principle that states that in a two-handed sign, if each hand has a different handshape, then only the active hand can move; the passive hand serves as a base and does not move? * The dominance condition
[003]What do you call the principle that states that in a two-handed sign, if both hands move, then they will have the same handshape and type of movement? * The symmetry condition
[004] What term means that the actual form of a symbol doesn’t reflect the form of the thing or activity it symbolizes? * Arbitrary
[004] What term means that the form of a symbol is an icon or picture of some aspect of the thing or activity being symbolized? * Iconic
[005] What do you call groups of words that resemble each other and whose form seems to reflect their meaning? * Phonesthesia.
[005] What do you call it when the sound of a word symbolizes the sound of the object or activity to which the word refers? * Onomatopoeia
[005-08] Languages and communication systems: * Both have arbitrary and/or iconic symbols that are organized and used systematically, and are shared by members of a community
[007-13] Some features or characteristics of languages that other communication systems tend to lack include: * Productivity, ways to show relationships between symbols, mechanisms for introducing new symbols, unrestricted domains, symbols that can be broken down into smaller parts, multiple meanings from symbols, past / future / and non-immediate situations, changes across time, interchangeable (both send and receive), users can self-monitor, learned from other users, users can learn variants, and can use the language to discuss the language.
[008] In English you might use the preposition “on” to indicate that “a book is on the table.” In ASL instead of using the preposition “on” you would use:* A classifier predicate.
[008] Name two ways of introducing new symbols into a language: * Compounding and Language contact
[008] What nonmanual signal uses pouted lips with the tongue visibly positioned between the teeth and can be translated as meaning “carelessly?”* “th”
[009] What are the three main communication domains of animals? * food, danger, mating
[013] Who established the Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb? (Which was later changed to the American School for the Deaf). * Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc
[014] In spoken languages, do smaller gestures combine to form larger gestures? * No (according to the text)
[014] What term refers to the various sign systems that were developed to represent English on the hands? * Manually Coded English (MCE)
[017] What are the five basic parts of signs? * handshape, movement, location, orientation, nonmanual signals
[017] What is the study of the smallest contrastive units of language? * Phonology
[019] What do we call the agreed-upon rules and symbols that linguists use to describe the structure of signs in a consistent and predictable manner? * Conventions
[019] What do we call the facial expressions that accompany certain signs? * Nonmanual signals (or nonmanual markers, or NMMs)
[019] What kind of features are indicated on a line above sign glosses? * Nonmanual signals and eye gaze
[019] What term means choosing an appropriate English word for signs in order to write them down? * Glossing
[019] When glossing, what do we represent with small capital letters preceded by the # symbol? * lexicalized fingerspelled words
[019] When glossing, what do we use “small capital letters in English” to represent? * Signs
[019] When glossing, what is represented by dashes between small capital letters? * full fingerspelling
[020] Name two systems that have been developed for describing the structure of signs. * “The Stokoe system” and the “The Liddell and Johnson system”
[023] Stokoe claimed that parameters of signs were produced: * simultaneously
[024] Name some “location primes.” * face, nose, trunk
[024] Name some “handshape primes.” * A, B, and 5 (etc.)
[024] William C. Stokoe designed the first system for describing ASL. What three parameters were included in his system? * Tab (location), dez (handshape), and sig (movement)
[025] How many “handshape primes” did Stokoe list? * 19
[028] The Stokoe system of describing ASL is limited in its usefulness in what two areas? * 1. The level of detail needed to describe signs, and 2. a lack of representation of sequence in ASL signs
[034] According to the Movement-Hold Model, signs consist of hold and movement segments that are produced: * sequentially
[034] What model for describing the structure of signs did Scott K. Liddell and Robert E. Johnson develop? * The Movement-Hold Model
[034] From a dictionary: Articulation: *The pronouncing of words, or the manner in which they are pronounced.
[034 also 074] Signs are composed of various parameters and articulatory features: * Movements, Holds, Handshape, Location, orientation, Nonmanual Markers

[036] There are at least 9 possible movement hold combinations. Name a combination that is not used in ASL: * HM
[037] What is the segmental structure of “GOOD”? * HMH
[038] The Liddell and Johnson system claims that the basic units of signs are produced: * sequentially
[040] Movement epenthesis, hold deletion, metathesis, and assimilation are what type of process? * Phonological
[040] The process of adding a movement segment between two signs is called: * movement epenthesis
[041] The elimination of holds between movements of signs that occur in sequence is called: * hold deletion
[041] When two signs are compounded, the noncontact holds between movements are eliminated. This principle is: * hold deletion
[042] Sometimes parts of the segments of a sign can change places. This is called: * metathesis
[042] The signs DEAF, CONGRESS, FLOWER, RESTAURANT, HONEYMOON, NAVY, TWINS, BACHELOR, PARENTS, and HEAD can all use what phonological process? * metathesis
[043] This phonological process occurs when a segment takes on the characteristics of another segment near it: * assimilation
[049 and 071] In which of the following signs is the handshape a morpheme: LOUSY, AWKWARD, THREE-DOLLARS, PREACH. * Answer: THREE-DOLLARS (In this sign, the three handshape functions as a morpheme]
[049] What is the difference between Phonology and Morphology? * Phonology is the study of the smallest contrastive parts of language. Morphology is the study of the smallest meaningful units in language. Memory aid: Remember Morphology is Meaningful!
[049] What is the smallest meaningful unit of a language? * A “morpheme.”
[049] What is the study of the smallest contrastive parts of language that do not have independent meaning? * phonology
[050] Bound morphemes: * Meaningful units of language that cannot occur alone are called bound morphemes.
[050] Can a “process” be a morpheme? * Yes. Morphemes may be either “forms” or “processes.” Example of a Process Morpheme in English: convict / convict. Example of a Process Morpheme in ASL: FLY / AIRPLANE
[050] What do you call morphemes that can occur by themselves as independent units? * Free Morphemes
[050] What do you call morphemes that cannot occur as independent units? * Bound Morphemes. Example: (English) “s” as in “cats.” Example: (ASL) “the 3 handshape in the ASL sign 3-MONTHS”
[052] In English, adding "er" to the term "walk" to create "walker" is an example of: * using a form morpheme to create a noun from a verb
[052] In English, emphasizing or "stressing" the first syllable of the word subject instead of the second syllable, is an example of: * using a process morpheme to create a noun from a verb
[052] Noun-verb pairs provide an example of what kind of morpheme? * a process morpheme
[053] What types of signs differ in their movement but share the same handshape, location, and orientation? * noun-verb pairs
[054] Dr. Bill's notes: “Tend-to” statements: When English users create new words from existing words they tend to use affixation. Example: “cat / cats." Anti-example: “convict / convict”. When ASL users create new signs from existing signs they tend to change the segmental structure (holds and movements) of the original form. Example: “SIT / CHAIR.” Anti-example: “TEACH / TEACHER.”
[054] Name a process that can be used to create a “process morpheme” in ASL: * reduplication
[054] The process of adding bound morphemes to other forms to create new units is called: * affixation
[054] The process of repetition is called: * reduplication
[054] The use of affixation in ASL would result in the creation of a: * form morpheme
[054] What do we call the process of adding a bound form morpheme to another form morpheme to create a new word? * affixation. (According to the authors it is not “certain” or “clear” whether ASL uses affixation or not. According to Dr. Bill it is obvious that the “PERSON” affix is an example of affixation.) English Example: cats, hiker. ASL example: TEACHER, ACTOR.
[056] In English compounds, which word of the compound is typically stressed? * The first word. English example: greenhouse
[056] The creation of a new word by combining two free morphemes is called: * compounding
[056] What do we call the process of combining two “free morphemes” to create a new word? * compounding
[056] What two changes are fairly predictable in English compounds? * (1.) Stressing of the first word, and (2.) creation of a new meaning.
[057] Morphological sequencing rules: * “structural changes” plus “changes in meaning.”
[057] The first contact rule, the single sequence rule, and the weak hand anticipation rule are what kind of rules * morphological rules
[057] What is the “first contact rule?” * When compounding, the first or only contact hold is kept. ASL Example: GOOD-NIGHT
[057] What three changes are fairly predictable in ASL compounds? * (1.)The first contact hold is kept, (2.) Internal movement or repetition is dropped, and (3.) The weak hand anticipates the dominant hand.
[058] What is the single sequence rule? * When compounding, internal movement or the repetition of movement is eliminated.
[058] What is the weak hand anticipation rule? * When compounding, the signers weak hand anticipates the second sign in the compound. ASL Example: BELIEVE
[058] When compounds are made in ASL, internal movement or the repetition of movement is eliminated. This principle is called: * the single sequence rule
[058] When two signs are compounded, the noncontact holds between movements are eliminated. This principle is: * hold deletion
[058] When you sign the compound "BELIEVE," (from "THINK" and "MARRY") your base hand is formed into a "C" handshape while your dominant hand is signing "THINK." This is an example of: * the weak hand anticipation rule
[059] If I do the sign BELIEVE, and at the beginning of the sign my right hand forms on somewhat of a "C" handshape (rather than the typical "1" handshape) what is taking place? * assimilation
[059] In regard to compounding: movement epenthesis, hold deletion, and assimilation are what kind of rules? * Phonological rules
[059] In the compound sign THINK-SAME, a movement segment is added between the final hold of THINK and the first movement of SAME. This is an example of: * movement epenthesis
[059] Phonological sequencing rules: * “structural changes” without changes in meaning.
[060] What is it that we often cannot guess or predict about the result of compounding? * The new meaning
[062] Fingerspelled letters: *Are actually signs Are a direct result of language contact with English. May resemble the written symbol.
[062] In fingerspelling, when a number of separate morphemes begin to act like one single morpheme we say they are: * Lexicalized
[062] In glossing, we use the "#" symbol to indicate: * Lexicalized fingerspelling
[062] The fingerspelled letter “C” * Is a free morpheme
[062] What are some of the changes that may take place during lexicalization of fingerspelling? * deletions, location, handshapes, movement, orientation, reduplication, second hand added, grammatical information added.
[065] In linguistics, the word "lexicalized" means: * Like a word
[067] JAPAN, ITALY, CHINA, AUSTRALIA, and CLUB (which was introduced at Deaf Way, 1989) are the direct result of American Deaf people coming in contact with Deaf people form other countries. These signs are examples of? *Loan signs
[067] Loan Signs *Quite a few of the indigenous signs used by people in other countries to refer to their country have been adopted by ASL users to refer to those countries. For example, instead of using the former ASL signs for JAPAN, ITALY, CHINA, and AUSTRALIA, many of us now use the signs used by each of those countries.
[067] Loan Signs: *When two languages are in contact, they tend to borrow from each other. ASL borrows from other sign languages. The signs that are borrowed from one language to another are called Loan Signs.

[070] Numerical incorporation: * In the sign WEEK, you can change the handshape from a 1 to a 2, or a 3 and so on to mean a specified number of weeks.
[070] The sign “TWO-WEEKS” can be thought of as having two meaningful parts: * 1. The bundle of information consisting of the holds, movement, location, orientation, and nonmanual signal. 2.  The handshape
[071] In the sign “TWO-WEEKS” the “2 handshape” is a: * bound morpheme.
[071] Note:  For most native signers, the handshape for WEEK can be: * changed from 1 through 9.
[072] Ask yourself, what does "assimilation mean?" Now ask yourself, is assimilation taking place in the sign "OLD-9"? * yes
[072]  The handshape change that we see in “ages 1 to 9” is the result of: *phonological assimilation and (according to the authors) NOT numerical incorporation.
[071] In the sign LOUSY, its individual parts: * do not have independent meaning.

[071] Numerical incorporation limitation for weeks, months, days, and dollars: * 1 - 9
[072] Note: AGE has traditionally been considered to be an example of numerical incorporation, but the authors categorize it as the result of: * "phonological assimilation."
[072] Numerical incorporation can be used for: * weeks, months, days, dollars, place in a race, exact time, period of time, and height.
[074] Location can have: * independent meaning in ASL Signs.
[074] When we change the location of where a sign is produced, and the new location results in a "new sign" but the location itself doesn't have independent meaning we can say that location is being used in that sign only for: * Phonological contrast (example: DRY, UGLY, SUMMER)

[074] In the signs SUMMER, UGLY, and DRY, space only contributes phonological contrast.
[075] The sentences “I GIVE YOU” and “YOU GIVE ME” make a morphological use of space.

[076] Plain verbs: *  The function of location is articulatory

[076] Verbs that move toward specific people, objects, or special locations and convey information about the subject and object of a verb (subject-object agreement) are what type of verb? * indicating
[079] Vebs in which the direction or location of the sign has specific meaning (but for which the handshape does not contribute additional meaning) are what kind of verbs?
* locative
[080] A difference between locative verbs and classifier predicates is that the handshape in locative verbs doesn't have what? * independent meaning
[097] What kind of structures are classifier predicates? *  Morphological structures
[090] Name three types of (non-classifier) ASL predicates:*  verbs, nouns, and adjectives
[091] A classifier handshape is:  *  a symbol for a class of objects
[091] A classifier, when combined with location, orientation, movement, and nonmanual signals, forms a * classifier predicate
[092] Name three kinds of movement roots: *  Stative descriptive, process, contact
[092] Name two basic parts of classifier predicates: *  the movement root and the handshape
[092] The signed concept "CAT-SIT" would fall into which of the following classifier types or movement roots: *  Contact root
[092] The signed concept "MOUND OF RICE" would fall into which of the following classifier types or movement roots: *  Stative descriptive
[092] The signed concept "PILE-OF-COINS" would fall into which of the following classifier types or movement roots: *  Stative descriptive
[092] The signed concept "TREES-GO-BY" would fall into which of the following classifier types or movement roots: *  Process

[093] A movement root and a classifier handshape combine to form: *  A classifier predicate
[094] To show a crowd of people you would use the sign CROWD-of-people (which is sometimes called "SCADS-OF"). What type of classifier handshape is CROWD-of-people? * on-surface-morpheme
[093] What type of classifier handshape is the sign "FLAT TIRE?" *  extent morpheme
[094] In verbs that show subject-object agreement, we can say that the location and orientation are: *  morphemic
[095] Which term most refers to the process whereby the meanings of the small units get lost in the meaning of the large unit? *  Lexicalization
[096] Productive classifier predicates: * Each part of the sign has independent meaning.
[097] Classifier predicates in which the parts of the sign no longer have independent meaning are what?
lexicalized
[100] How can classifier predicates show perceived motion?  *  The hand or hands move to show a surface or an object that appears to be moving
[100] When signers use orientation to create different meanings we refer this as using orientation in what way? * productively
[102] The classifier handshape for many perceived motion predicates is a whole entity handshape. What type of movement root is used with perceived motion predicates? *  Process
[103] To indicate "from signer perspective" when doing a perceived motion classifier predicate you would: *  Sign the classifier predicate between the upper chest and the top of the head.

[105] Markers that have to do with how the action of a verb is performed in regard to time: * temporal aspect

[105] The linguistic term for adding grammatical information to a word or sign: * Inflection

[107] For a sign like “ANALYZE,” the meaning of “IN-A-HURRY” can be indicated with: * inflection of the internal movement of the fingers
[107] When the signing space for a sign is reduced and the movement is done quickly it inflects the meaning of a verb to mean:  *IN-A-HURRY
[108] Another temporal aspect marker is “activity performed under pressure and then concluded.” This can be shown by: * Signing with the lips parted and tense, the eyes squinted, and then the mouth drops open and the eyes relax
[108] The sign ARRIVE (M H) can be produced with an added initial hold (H M H) to mean ARRIVE-AT-LAST OR ARRIVE-FOLLOWING-SOME-DELAY. The added initial hold is essentially an: *affix
[110] Changing the verb “SIT” to mean the noun “CHAIR” is an example of a: * Derivational process
[110] Making nouns from verbs (noun/verb pairs), compounding, lexicalized fingerspelling, numerical incorporation, classifier predicates, and perspective verbs, are all examples of: * Derivational morphology
[110] The process of making new units for a language is typically described as: * Derivational morphology
[111] Changing the verb “SIT” to mean "sit for a long time" is an example of what kind of process?  * Inflectional process
[111] The process of adding grammatical information to units that already exist is: * Inflectional morphology
[111]  What parts of ASL verbs typically contain information about the subject and the object? *  The location and the orientation
[113]  An infinite number of sentences can be created from a finite set of rules. This is called: * Productivity
[113]  How a user uses the language: * Performance
[113] another word commonly used to mean syntax: * Grammar
[113] Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc, are categories of signs (or words) that are called: * Lexical categories
[114] The position of a sign with respect to the bound morphemes that can be attached to it with a sign:  * Morphological frame: 
[113] The rules for making sentences: * Syntax: 
[113] Theories about syntactic structure are: * constantly developing and evolving.
[113] What a user knows about a language: * Competence
[114]  Note:  What are nouns?  Nouns:  Identify entities. Examples:  individuals (namesigns or #names), Places: Chicago, #Sears #Denny’s Concrete and abstract things: computer, table, theory
[114] Are there any bound morphemes that attach to nouns in ASL to pluralize those nouns? * No
[115] What do Predicates do? * They say something about the subject of a sentence.
[114] Note: Lexical categories have unique sets of morphological frames and syntactic frames.
[114] Reduplication “++” and determiners such as “index-arc” or  “many” allow us to do what to a noun?  * pluralize
[114] The position in which a sign occurs relative to the other classes of signs in the same phrase.  * Syntactic frame
[114] This lexical category identifies entities such as individuals, places, and things: * Nouns
[115] Items in this lexical category say something about the subject of a sentence: * Predicates
[115] Does ASL require a verb to be part of the predicate? * no
[115] Notes:  Types of ASL predicates:  Simple:  Pro.3 play  (play is a verb that describes what he is doing); Predicate nouns:  BOY HOME  (home is a prediate-noun); Predicate adjectives: index house yellow  (det N Pred), Yellow house, old  (Adj N Pred), Yellow house  =   adj  noun, House yellow =  noun predicate
[115] Does English require a verb to be part of a predicate?  * yes
[115] In the sentence “BOY HOME,” to what lexical category would we assign “HOME?” * Predicate noun
[115] In the sentence INDEX-lf HOUSE YELLOW, to what lexical category would we assign “YELLOW?”: * Predicate (or “predicate adjective”)
[115] In the sentence YELLOW HOUSE OLD, to what lexical category would we assign “YELLOW?”: * Adjective
[115] Note: Certain ASL signs only function as predicates: Small dog index sick   (Adj N Det Pred)
[115] What kind of predicate would the verb be in a sentence containing only a noun and a verb?:  A simple predicate*
[116] Adjectives are placed where?  * before the noun
[116] Adverbs modify: * adjectives (and predicate adjectives)
[117] NOTE: Adverbial meaning incorporated into the sign: Tall > Very tall
[116] WILL, CAN, & FINISH are what kind of verbs? * Auxiliary verbs
[117] NOTE:  Adverbs that indicate when an action took place: YESTERDAY, TWO WEEKS AGO, NEXT TWO DAYS, STILL  (tend to occur at beginning of the syntactic frame)
[117] NOTE:  Headshaking is a morphological change (ANN (neg)-HUNGRY).  Adding NOT is a “syntactic” change (ANN NOT (neg)-HUNGRY)
[118]  Words such as “a, the, an” or signs such as “INDEX” that indicate whether a noun is a specific noun or if it is a member of a particular class of nouns: * Determiners
[119]  True or false:  It is okay to sign a determiner simultaneously with a noun:  * True
[120] What kind of verb is used to add tense and aspect information?  * Auxiliary verbs
[]  In verbs that show subject-object agreement, we can say that the location and orientation are: *  morphemic






[] aspect marker: If I use movement and space to show that someone is “giving” continually or over and over again, I'm using space and movement as "aspectual markers."
[] Referent: 1. What a word or symbol to designates or refer to (somebody or something) 2.  the thing or idea that a symbol, word, or phrase denotes or refers to
[] Nominal: 1. assigned to a named person, and bearing that person's name. 2.  relating to a noun or a group of words that functions as a noun
[] When a location in space is associated with a nominal, it performs a referential kind of function.
[] (Bill’s notes) Function: 1. purpose 2. an action or use for which something is suited or designed
[] When you use space to provide information about the location of a person or object in a three-dimensional network you are using a locative function.
[] Relative frame of reference:    A good example of a signer is describing something using a “relative frame of reference” would be signing a scene from his or her perspective.
[] Absolute frame of reference    A good example of a signer describing something using an “absolute frame of reference” would be giving directions using the standard signs EAST, WEST, NORTH, and SOUTH.
[] Narrative Perspective   A good example of a signer is describing something using an “narrative perspective” would be a phrase in which the person takes on the role of one of the characters as if he were actually that person.
[?] Consonants and vowels in spoken languages are parallel to what in sign languages? * holds and movements

[3rd Edition only: 76]
Verbs in ASL can include information about the subject and object of a verb. This is called: *  Subject-object agreement




Note: The following notes should be kept together and used as a way of understanding the material on pages 56 through 60 of the fourth edition.

[056-59 4th Edition: Dr. Bill's notes] Doing signs quickly at high speeds (for example, signing a sentence) causes structural changes in the  signs. (Changes to the articulatory bundle of the signs). When you do two signs together quickly, one of two things will happen: Possibility #1. There will be changes to the meaning of those signs. For example “compounds.” (ASL example: “GOODNIGHT” = a greeting or parting statement.  Possibility #2. There will be no changes to the meaning of those signs.  For example “fast signing.” (ASL example: “WHY NOT?”)

[56-60] Producing signs in a sequence changes the structure of those signs. There are a bunch of “rules” defining the changes that happen to signs when you do them in a sequence. Don’t think of these as “rules” think of these as characteristics that signs tend to exhibit when you do them quickly in sequence.  (Which basically means, these are the reasons why the pretty signs your ASL 1 – 4 teachers showed you look nothing like what you see Deaf people signing to each other. (Heh). Changes: * a. Movement epenthesis segments are added. * b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. * c. Assimilation takes place. * d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). * e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. * f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.
 
* a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.
* b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
* c. Assimilation takes place.
* d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
* e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
* f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.

[56-60] Producing signs in a sequence. Let’s go over that again. Changes that take place when signs are placed in sequences:  * a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.  Example: Notice the movement from the chin downward that the dominant hand makes while signing SISTER. (GIRL + epenthetic movement + SAME).  * b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. Example: LOOK-STRONG drops the hold that normally occurs at the end of the “looks” part of the sign. * c. Assimilation takes place. * d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). Example: In the sign GOOD-NIGHT the second contact hold is dropped. * e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. Example: The signs MOM and DAD sometimes wiggle the fingers, but the compound sign PARENTS drops the wiggle. * f.  The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment. Example:  In the sign “BELIEVE” the weak hand turns into a “C” handshape while it is waiting for the dominant hand to finish signing “THINK.”  This is more than just “assimilation” it is anticipation and it is being done by the weak hand!

a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.  Example: Notice the movement from the chin downward that the dominant hand makes while signing SISTER. (GIRL + epenthetic movement + SAME).
b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. Example: LOOK-STRONG drops the hold that normally occurs at the end of the “looks” part of the sign.
c. Assimilation takes place.
d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). Example: In the sign GOOD-NIGHT the second contact hold is dropped.
e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. Example: The signs MOM and DAD sometimes wiggle the fingers, but the compound sign PARENTS drops the wiggle.
f.  The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment. Example:  In the sign “BELIEVE” the weak hand turns into a “C” handshape while it is waiting for the dominant hand to finish signing “THINK.”  This is more than just “assimilation” it is anticipation and it is being done by the weak hand!

[56-60] Now let’s go over those a yet again, but this time we are going to make a distinction between general changes that take place with most high speed signing, and deeper changes that we see happening in high speed signing of compound signs. * (1.) General changes in high speed signing: a. Movement epenthesis segments are added. b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. c. Assimilation takes place.  (2.)  Deeper changes in compounds:  d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.

1. General changes in high speed signing:
a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.
b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
c. Assimilation takes place.
----------------
2.  Deeper changes in compounds:
d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.

[56-60] Okay. Now lets look at that again. (What the fetch?!?) 1. Changes that are not associated with a change in meaning: *a. Movement epenthesis segments are added. b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. c. Assimilation takes place. 2.  Changes that ARE associated with a change in meaning: d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.

1. Changes that are not associated with a change in meaning:
a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.
b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
c. Assimilation takes place.

2.  Changes that ARE associated with a change in meaning:
d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.

Now we will look at the list a 5th time:
1. Phonological changes (apply to most high speed signing, including compounds).
a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.
b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
c. Assimilation takes place.

2.  Morphological changes (apply to compounds, but not necessarily all high speed signing).
d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.
 Phonological rules:
Movement epenthesis.” Segments are added.
Hold Deletion” [41 & p59] Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
Assimilation” [43 & p59] Assimilation takes place.
Morphological rules:
The first contact rule.” Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
The single sequence rule.” Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
The weak hand anticipation rule.” The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.
 



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Dr. Bill’s clarification regarding:  “How to pluralize a noun in ASL”
Some methods of pluralizing:
1. Use a number
2. Incorporate a number into the sign
3. Use a quantifier (determiner) such as "MANY, FEW, SEVERAL"
4. Use a classifier such as "SCADS-OF"
5. Use with a phrase: STORE, I GO-to, (shift) GO-to, (shift) GO-to.
6. Sweep, index-arc
7. Reduplication: brother+ word++ Tree++ Plants++  (The “plus sign: +” means “reduplicate” or “sign it again.”
8. Inflection of the movement (e.g. people)
9. Reposition
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What is a “TEMPORAL ASPECT MARKER?”
Well, “TEMPORAL” = TIME
“ASPECT” = HOW or WAY
“MARKER” = MARK = INDICATE = SHOW

Thus the phrase “temporal aspect marker” means:
Something that shows how the subject was done in regards to time.
A movement or inflection of a sign that helps us understand if the sign was done continually, repeatedly, hurriedly, etc.
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Note: The following notes should be kept together and used as a way of understanding the material on pages 56 through 60 of the fourth edition.

[p56-60] Producing signs in a sequence changes the structure of those signs. There are a bunch of “rules” defining the changes that happen to signs when you do them in a sequence. Don’t think of these as “rules” think of these as characteristics that signs tend to exhibit when you do them quickly in sequence.  (Which basically means, these are the reasons why the pretty signs your ASL 1 – 4 teachers showed you look nothing like what you see Deaf people signing to each other. (Heh). Changes: * a. Movement epenthesis segments are added. * b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. * c. Assimilation takes place. * d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). * e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. * f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.
 


* a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.
* b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
* c. Assimilation takes place.
* d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
* e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
* f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.


[p57-60] Producing signs in a sequence. Let’s go over that again. Changes that take place when signs are placed in sequences:  * a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.  Example: Notice the movement from the chin downward that the dominant hand makes while signing SISTER. (GIRL + epenthetic movement + SAME).  * b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. Example: LOOK-STRONG drops the hold that normally occurs at the end of the “looks” part of the sign. * c. Assimilation takes place. * d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). Example: In the sign GOOD-NIGHT the second contact hold is dropped. * e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. Example: The signs MOM and DAD sometimes wiggle the fingers, but the compound sign PARENTS drops the wiggle. * f.  The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment. Example:  In the sign “BELIEVE” the weak hand turns into a “C” handshape while it is waiting for the dominant hand to finish signing “THINK.”  This is more than just “assimilation” it is anticipation and it is being done by the weak hand!


a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.  Example: Notice the movement from the chin downward that the dominant hand makes while signing SISTER. (GIRL + epenthetic movement + SAME).
b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. Example: LOOK-STRONG drops the hold that normally occurs at the end of the “looks” part of the sign.
c. Assimilation takes place.
d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). Example: In the sign GOOD-NIGHT the second contact hold is dropped.
e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. Example: The signs MOM and DAD sometimes wiggle the fingers, but the compound sign PARENTS drops the wiggle.
f.  The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment. Example:  In the sign “BELIEVE” the weak hand turns into a “C” handshape while it is waiting for the dominant hand to finish signing “THINK.”  This is more than just “assimilation” it is anticipation and it is being done by the weak hand!


[p57-60] Now let’s go over those a yet again, but this time we are going to make a distinction between general changes that take place with most high speed signing, and deeper changes that we see happening in high speed signing of compound signs. * (1.) General changes in high speed signing: a. Movement epenthesis segments are added. b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. c. Assimilation takes place.  (2.)  Deeper changes in compounds:  d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.


1. General changes in high speed signing:
a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.
b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
c. Assimilation takes place.
----------------
2.  Deeper changes in compounds:
d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.


[p57-60] Okay. Now lets look at that again. (What the fetch?!?) 1. Changes that are not associated with a change in meaning: *a. Movement epenthesis segments are added. b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped. c. Assimilation takes place. 2.  Changes that ARE associated with a change in meaning: d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept). e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped. f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.


1. Changes that are not associated with a change in meaning:
a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.
b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
c. Assimilation takes place.

2.  Changes that ARE associated with a change in meaning:
d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.


 Now we will look at the list a 5th time:

1. Phonological changes (apply to most high speed signing, including compounds).
a. Movement epenthesis segments are added.
b. Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
c. Assimilation takes place.

2.  Morphological changes (apply to compounds, but not necessarily all high speed signing).
d. Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
e. Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
f. The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.

 Phonological rules:
Movement epenthesis.” Segments are added.
Hold Deletion” [p41 & p59] Non-contact holds between movements are dropped.
Assimilation” [p43 & p59] Assimilation takes place.

Morphological rules:
The first contact rule.” Some contact holds are dropped (but the first or only contact hold is kept).
The single sequence rule.” Internal movement or repetition of movement is dropped.
The weak hand anticipation rule.” The weak hand mutates to look like what the dominant hand will look like in the next segment.

 

 

 


Linguistics of American Sign Language:

An Introduction, 4th Ed.,

by Clayton Valli, Ceil Lucas, and Kristin J. Mulrooney.


Part One Basic Concepts

Defining Language 1


Part Two Phonology


Unit 1 Signs Have Parts 17


Unit 2 The Stokoe System 23


Unit 3 The Concept of Sequentiality in the Description of Signs 28


Unit 4 The Liddell and Johnson Movement-Hold Model 34


Unit 5 Phonological Processes 40


Unit 6 Summary 44


Part Three Morphology and Syntax


Unit 1 Phonology vs. Morphology 49


Unit 2 Deriving Nouns from Verbs in ASL 51


Unit 3 Compounds 56


Unit 4 Lexicalized Fingerspelling and Loan Signs 62


Unit 5 Numeral Incorporation 70


Unit 6 The Function of Space in ASL 74


Unit 7 Verbs in ASL 76


Unit 8 Simple Sentences in ASL 84


Unit 9 Classifier Predicates 90


Unit 10 Classifier Predicates and Signer Perspective 100


Unit 11 Temporal Aspect 105


Unit 12 Derivational vs. Inflectional Morphology 110


Unit 13 Syntax 113


Unit 14 Basic Sentence Types 127


Unit 15 Time in ASL 135


Part Four Semantics


Unit 1 The Meaning of Individual Signs 141


Unit 2 The Meaning of Sentences 152


Part Five Language in Use


Unit 1 Variation and Historical Change 161


Unit 2 ASL Discourse 169


Unit 3 Bilingualism and Language Contact 177


Unit 4 Language as Art 184


 


"Idioms"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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